Summer is here, and I’ve been thinking about camp. For Jews, summer camp is a long standing institution full of first loves, bug bites, bug juice, Israeli shlichim, a modicum of Hebrew, bunks, s’mores, and Friday night services. People seem to love camp. Adults often recall their years at summer camp with some affection, kids look forward to camp all… Read more →
In my Introduction to Sociology course, the one I took as a first year student at UC Santa Cruz, the professor said over and over “the map is not the territory. The map is not the territory.” Our job, as budding sociologists was first to understand this difference His words stick with me, and I occasionally repeat them to my… Read more →
It seems like mifgashim, meetings between American Jews and Israeli Jews, have quickly become a core element of Israel education. Proponents of mifgashim both in universities and in the field argue that they are essential not merely because they are effective in fostering participants’ deep and lasting connections to Israel, but because they offer participants an “authentic” experience that replaces… Read more →
Spoiler alert: This post will not discuss the ins-and-outs of divestment, BDS, the merits of the Students Out of Occupied Palestine resolution, the Coalition for Peace petition, nor will it, in any meaningful way, talk about Israel or Palestine. It will, however, talk about the politics of representing Jews on the Stanford campus, and how claims to represent populations easily… Read more →
When I ask parents why they send their children to religious school (i.e., Hebrew or Sunday school), all of them talk about wanting their child to learn the history of the Jewish people and to feel part of the Jewish community. None of them have spoken about wanting their children to develop a relationship with God or to become religious.… Read more →
In the Introduction to What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy, James Gee sets out a theory of the social organization of language. He argues that language cannot exist without a social context and that the productive achievements of language are arrived at in the realm of social interaction, as a fully embodied product of human relationships.
Gee’s theory is a potent contrast to Cartesian approaches that abide by a duality between body and mind and the present day reification of mind-body duality in formalist theories of cognition (such as the generative linguistics of Chomsky). Gee espouses an embodied model for understanding language acquisition and thinking. The social context, interpersonal dynamics and physical experiences of the body in its environment are all weighted as being essential elements that interact and together allow individuals to learn and think.
While I greatly appreciate Gee’s writings on sociolinguistic questions, a central lynchpin of his premise stuck out as problematic for me. Gee writes,
“you cannot read or think outside of any group whatsoever. You cannot assign asocial and private meanings to texts and things, meanings that only you are privy to and that you cannot even be sure you remember correctly from occasion to occasion as you read or think about the same thing, since as a social isolate (at least in regard to meaning) you cannot, in fact, check your memory with anyone else.” (p. 2)
Even if there is no such thing as an absolute “private meaning,” there are increasingly discreet units of privacy that relate to the phenomenon of creativity. Perhaps in the moment of actual engendering, the mind approaches the absolute zero of a private language.
In relationship to the idea of “private meaning” I am thinking of outsider artist Henry Darger. Darger worked on his literary and mixed media visual art works in isolation, showing his work to no one. His artworks were only seen after his death. His life story approximates the stylized image of the creative artist acting in solitude, hemmed in to a private world. Darger’s creative privacy was very nearly complete not only in that he lived in great isolation, but also in as much as he lacked basic intercourse with normative realms of meaning. For instance, there is an anecdote about Darger claiming to have been raped by a woman who looked at him while walking down the street. His ignorance about general norms of shared knowledge was apparent in his belief that males and females shared the same genitalia. These examples, while betraying a childlike divorce from adult awareness, are relevant in trying to ascertain what kind of community of thought Darger could be said to belong to. Darger generated layers of meaning in his artwork that reflect his experience of American culture. However, his articulation of meaning was deeply embedded, enshrouded, in a circular and private world of his own thought.
The Zohar and the mythology around its inception is another example that comes to mind of a self-contained world of thought. According to orthodox kabbalistic tradition, the Zohar existed as a hidden text for over a thousand years before being revealed to the world. In what realm of “public” thought did this text exist during its thousand years of solitude? What realm of shared discourse can an esoteric literary tradition like that of the Zohar, be said to occupy? When a body of thought eludes ready understanding and seems to approach human consciousness with the goal of undermining its usual modalities, what discursive community can it be said to represent?
The question emerges more clearly: Does the idea of “private meaning” depend on a mind-body duality in order to make any sense? Or is there a way to reconcile embodied cognition with the image of the hermetic generation of a new idea? Gee’s idea’s about the social nature of language need to be expanded to make room for the inner spaces of creativity and the embodied experience of isolation. This is an important area to look at in trying to attain a sensitive portrayal of the role social cognition plays in the creative experience.
I’m standing with a group of day school students in the Negev. It is the first day of their junior class trip to Israel, and I am tagging along. Yigal (not his real name), our tour guide, begins with a brief introduction to the history of Israel. He hands out cards to the students representing moments in Israeli history. He… Read more →
You might be surprised to learn that the most popular Tanakh curriculum is not being used by any day schools. You won’t find it in synagogue or at camps either. Surprisingly, you can find it in more than 125,000 homes across North America. I am talking about PJ Library, an organization that sends a Jewish-themed kids book to families once… Read more →
This past weekend two important ongoing conversations about Jewish education crystalized at in-person conferences. One conference focused on the biggest challenge(s) facing Jewish education today. It offered an attempt to define an agenda for understanding Jewish learning and for identifying possible goals. The other conversation was on the same topic… The Mandel Center at Brandeis University hosted a conference of… Read more →
This weekend, the EdJS was fortunate to host an incredible conference of scholars exploring the full range of events and forces that converged and emerged from the year 1968. The quality of the line-up of presenters was matched only by the enthusiasm of those assembled to contest, remember, honor, argue over, and otherwise examine our collective understanding of that moment… Read more →